Combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil leads among other things to the discharge of substances which are converted into acids in the atmosphere, e.g. sulphuric acid and nitric acid. The precipitation becomes acidiferous and can damage forests, aquatic environments and buildings. The most important substances contributing to acidification are sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand. Biochemical oxygen consumption after 5 days. A biological method to determine the content of biodegradable organic matter in water.
BS 7750 British Standard
a standard for environmental management systems which can be used to ensure and
document compliance with declared environmental policies and environmental objective
The purpose of calculating effect potentials is to compare the contributions made by the different substances to a particular environmental impact, e.g. the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is calculated as carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. 1 gramme of CO2 corresponds to 1 CO2 equivalent.
Enzymes are biological catalysts which start up biochemical processes in livin cells. They can also be used in industrial processes.
Enzymes have a very precise effect: a specific enzyme catalyzes a specific reaction, but many thousands of times over, so that only very small quantites are needed. Enzymes are proteins and therefore 100% biodegradable.
The increasing consumption of fossil fuels, particularly oil and coal, is increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 restricts the sunıs heat from escaping from the atmosphere, thus giving rise to global warming.
An LCA has three main elements:
The investigation phase is called a Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI). The results of an LCI are an environmental profile of the product which states how and how much the environment is affected by manufacture and use of one unit of the product.
- Investigation of emissions from and consumption of resources for manufacture and use of a product from ³cradle to grave², i.e. from recovery of the raw materials to production and use of the product until it is disposed of as waste.
- Assessment of derived environmental impacts.
- Assessment of opportunities to implement environmental improvements in the production system.
Photochemical Ozone Formation
When solvents and other volatile organic compounds are emitted to the atmosphere they are often degraded in the course of a few days. In the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) ozone can be formed during this process. Ozone attacks organic matter in plants and animals.
Precipitated undissolved material.